Familial (inherited) leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma: an overview.
* Segel GB, * Lichtman MA. Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.
We have reviewed the world's literature that addresses familial leukemiaterm, lymphomaterm, and myeloma. We have catalogued the phenotypic abnormalities associated with an increased risk of developing a hematological malignancy. These syndromes, such as Fanconi anemia or familial platelet syndrome, have been well characterized and in many cases the gene responsible for the predisposition has been defined. We have focused, however, on reports of a familial incidence of hematological malignancy in which no prior predisposing syndrome was reported. In this circumstance, so-called pure familial leukemia, lymphoma, or myeloma, the intergenerational incidence of disease occurred in ostensibly healthy persons. These families have been grouped into sets in which (a) anticipation, (b) immune abnormalities, (c) linkage to HLA phenotypes, (d) linkage to chromosome abnormalities, or (e) gene abnormalities have been reported.
They have also been grouped by type of leukemia. Purely descriptive reports, not accompanied by some information on pathogenesis, have not been included. They are catalogued in some of the references cited in this paper. Anticipation is a prominent feature of familial leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma, supporting the concept of germlineterm transmission of a susceptibility gene. Although linkage to an HLA phenotype occurs in some families, no consistent intrafamilial pattern has emerged. Deletion of chromosome 7 is associated with familial acute myelogenous leukemia, but no other recurring localization has been established. Although putative susceptibility genes have been identified in some families, the likelihood is that the mode of inheritance is different in different families and different genes are involved even within a specific Mendelian pattern. Although as yet not reported, the frequency of familial CLL and the intensity of its study indicates that the gene or genes involved in that familial disorder(s) should be identified conclusively soon if sufficient families for study can be assembled through international cooperation.