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Colon
Follow-up endoscopic surveillance in colorectal cancer patients improves survival
By Dross at 2007-03-15 21:32
 

Colorectal cancer patients who undergo colonoscopic surveillance during follow-up after surgery experience improved survival, according to a study to be published in the April issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology but currently available on-line. Results of the study suggest that colorectal cancer patients should undergo routine colonoscopic surveillance at one year after their surgery and that more intensive surveillance may be needed in patients found to have advanced neoplasia as well as those with a prior history of adenomatous colon polyps.

"The results of our study provide additional evidence that colorectal cancer survivors benefit from surveillance with colonoscopy, and it appears that the initial surveillance colonoscopy should be performed at one year after colon resection because of the significant risk of additional cancers and polyps in these patients," according to Stephen J. Rulyak, MD, MPH, lead author of the study and Acting Assistant Professor in the Division of Gastroenterology at the University of Washington in Seattle.

read more | 1 comment | 827 reads

In Vivo Inhibition of Growth of Human Tumor Lines by Flavonoid Fractions From Cranberry Extract
By Dross at 2007-02-28 02:00
 

 Edible fruits and berries may serve as sources for novel anticancer agents, given that extracts of these foods have demonstrated cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines. Semipurified, flavonoid-rich extracts of cranberry (Vaccinia macrocarpa) were shown previously to arrest proliferation of tumor cells and induce apoptosis. However, the ability of cranberry flavonoids to inhibit tumor growth in vivo has not been reported other than in a preliminary report. As model systems for testing this activity, human tumor cell lines representative of three malignancies were chosen: glioblastoma multiforme (U87), colon carcinomaterm (HT-29), and androgenindependent prostate carcinoma (DU145). A flavonoid-rich fraction 6 (Fr6) and a more purified proanthocyanidin (PAC)-rich fraction were isolated from cranberry presscake and whole cranberry, respectively, by column chromatography. Fr6 and PAC each significantly slowed the growth of explant tumors of U87 in vivo, and PAC inhibited growth of HT-29 and DU145 explants (P < 0.05), inducing complete regression of two DU145 tumor explants. Flow cytometric analyses of in vitro-treated U87 cells indicated that Fr6 and PAC could arrest cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle (P < 0.05) and also induce cell death within 24 to 48 h of exposure (P < 0.05). These results indicate the presence of a potential anticancer constituent in the flavonoid-containing fractions from cranberry extracts.

read more | 1606 reads

12 myths about colon cancer
By Dross at 2007-02-24 23:06
 


ANN ARBOR, Mich. * Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and the No. 1 cause of cancer death among
non-smokers. More than 150,000 Americans will be diagnosed with colon cancer this year, and 52,000 will die from the disease.

 

 

It doesn't have to be that way.

"Most colorectal cancers are predictable by early diagnosis and screening. If colonoscopy can identify a problem early, we could
completely prevent colorectal cancer," says D. Kim Turgeon, M.D., clinical associate professor of gastroenterology at the University of

read more | 1291 reads

Researchers identify cell pathway in colon cancer
By Dross at 2007-02-20 23:38
 

CLEVELAND, OH - For the one in 18 men and women who will be diagnosed with cancer of the colon and rectum during their lifetime and over 150,000 people diagnosed on a yearly basis, today's genetic research news offers some optimism. In a study to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, {PNAS Online Edition Feb. 20-23, 2007} led by Zhenghe John Wang, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Genetics at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, researchers have identified a cell pathway which plays a critical role in the development of colon cancer. This pathway may also play a role in the development of lung and stomach cancers. Investigators say they have identified STAT3 {signal transducer and activator of transcription 3}, as a target regulated by PTPRT {Receptor Protein tyrosine phosphatase T}, which was previously identified to be mutated in colon, lung and stomach cancer patients.

read more | 1181 reads

The multi-tasking reovirus
By Dross at 2007-02-08 21:31
 

   In the past couple of years, researchers at Oncolytics Biotech have been developing a harmless virus as a potent cancer killer, but they have also been accumulating data that suggests in addition to directly killing tumor cells, the reovirus may prime the immune system to mount a separate, powerful and long lasting defence against cancer. Evidence for this theory has been mounting for the past year. On January 10, 2007, Dr. Sheila Fraser of St. James's University Hospital in Leeds, U.K. delivered a paper at the Society of Academic & Research Surgery Conference in Cambridge, U.K., in which she described a test tube experiment further supporting this claim. Fraser's presentation, titled "Reovirus as a Potentially Immunogenic as well as Cytotoxic Therapy for Metastaticterm Colorectal Cancer," reported how cells taken from a colorectal cancer liver metastases were more susceptible to death many weeks after treatment with reovirus, and long after the virus had cleared the patient's system. These cells, when cultured in the laboratory, also appeared to be vulnerable to re-infection with reovirus. Moreover, Dr. Fraser noted that dendritic cells, which prime the immune system against cancer, were activated by exposure to the reovirus.

read more | 1088 reads

Gut research yields new anti-cancer approach
By Dross at 2007-02-01 22:28
 

 

Researchers believe they have discovered by chance a new way to fight colorectal cancer, and potentially cancers of the esophagus, liver and skin.

 

Early work shows that a group of compounds called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) inhibitors may have an unexpected cancer-fighting effect, according to research published today in the journal International Cancer Research. Furthermore, the new studies suggest that PPARgamma inhibitors act through some of the same mechanisms as the blockbuster chemotherapyterm Taxol, but with key differences. While studying whether compounds known to affect PPARgamma could play a role in inflammatory bowel diseases, a team at the University of Rochester Medical Center found that medium-to-high doses of PPARgamma inhibitor killed colorectal cancer cell lines. Despite the compound's class name, the anti-cancer effect has nothing to do with the ability of the compounds to inhibit PPARgamma function. Researchers believe that PPARgamma inhibitors instead attack the "skeletons" of cancer cells that enable them to reproduce, grow and spread. Better solutions are needed because, according to the American Cancer Society, colorectal cancer remains the no. 2 cause of cancer death for men, and the no. 3 cause of cancer death for women. "This is the first observation of a small molecule dramatically reducing levels of the proteins called tubulins, the building blocks of cancer cell skeletons," said Katherine L. Schaefer, Ph.D., a research assistant professor within the Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology Division, at the University of Rochester Medical Center, and first author of the paper.

read more | 5 comments | 1030 reads

Aspirin is indicated in preventing Colorectal Cancer but ...
By HCat at 2007-01-05 07:30
 

    A medium size clinical trial has shown that taking a daily aspirin (81mg) can substantially reduce the occurrence of advanced colorectal adenomas as well as a less but still significant reduction in non-advanced adenomas. One peculiar thing about the trial is that at a higher dose (325mg) of aspirin the benefit is not there. Also, it is known that this regime requires up to 10 years of daily aspirin to see an effect, and even then, once the aspirin stops there is no lingering protective effect. This 10 year treatment requirement may be a reason why this trial did not find a protection in using the higher dose since this particular trial went for 3 years. The following review provides excellent insight into not only colorectal cancer benefits but a general cancer chemopreventive (chemical protection) effect of aspirin.

read more | 1901 reads

Challenges in the use of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in colorectal cancer.
By Dross at 2007-01-04 07:39
 

Research new Antibodies for your disease, and don't let you insurance company deny you if they say you are negative for EGFRtermtermterm Immunohistochemistry staining as the test has not been proven effective but the treatments are very expensive and pit the insurance company against you. One year of these types of treatments can cost up to $150,000.

 

[via Entrez PubMed]:

read more | 1216 reads

Complete Remission of Lymph Node metastasized Colon using Irinotecan and UFT
By Dross at 2007-01-04 07:03
 

Part of the FolFiriterm regimen,

 

[via fulltext.pdf (application/pdf Object)]:

 

We herein report a case of such systemic lymph node metastasistermterm that was successfully treated with a combination of irinotecantermterm (CPT-11) and UFT, a combination drug of tegafur and uracil. The patient was a 57-year-old woman who had a tumor in the ascending colon, and massively swollen para-aortic and supraclavicular lymph node metastasis. She was treated with combination chemotherapyterm of CPT-11 and UFT. The main tumor was detected as a decompressed scar, and the supraclavicular and para-aortic lymph nodes had completely disappeared after the second cycle of treatment.

read more | 1628 reads

Nonsurgical Approaches to Colorectal Cancer -- Ryan 11 (9): 999 -- The Oncologist
By Dross at 2007-01-04 06:31
 

If the goal of chemotherapyterm has been to cause a large reduction in the numbers or cancer cells in a patient, why then has chmotherapy alone been favored by most of today's oncologists over a combined chemo/surgical approach? Here Dr. David P Ryan, the director of the Harvard Gastrointestinal Cancer Center discusses some outcomes paticularly to colorectal cancer that has metastasized to the liver or lung.

 

[via Nonsurgical Approaches to Colorectal Cancer -- Ryan 11 (9): 999 -- The Oncologist]:

read more | 703 reads

Dynavax Initiates Phase 1 Clinical Trial in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
By admin at 2006-12-08 02:15
 

Dynavax Technologies Corporation (NASDAQ:DVAX) announced today the initiation of a Phase 1 dose escalation clinical trial of its TLR9 agonist in combination with a standard chemotherapeutic regimen for metastaticterm colorectal cancer.

 

The enrollment target of the trial is 15 patients, all of whom will have been previously treated for colorectal cancer but had a recurrence of the disease. The trial, which will be conducted at three centers in the United States, is designed to identify the optimum dose and to yield safety and tolerability data for escalating doses of a Dynavax TLR9 agonist administered with irinotecantermterm and cetuximabtermterm. The company anticipates that the trial will be completed in the first half of 2007 and plans to use the data to design a larger Phase 2 multicenter, randomized controlled trial in metastatic colorectal cancer. Initiation of a Phase 2 study in this indication is expected in 2007. "In preclinical studies, our TLR9 agonist has shown anti-tumor activity when administered alone and in combination with monoclonal antibodies or chemotherapeutic agents. Even with the tremendous advances in the treatment of this disease, the prognosis of metastatic colorectal cancer remains poor for most patients and additional approaches are still needed. We believe our drug candidate may be able to enhance the therapeutic benefit from the current standard-of-care chemotherapies," noted Dr. Eduardo Martins, Vice President, Clinical Development. Dynavax indicated that the trial is the first of several slated to enter the clinic with funding from Symphony Capital.

read more | 885 reads

Oncologists Study Colon Cancer Stem Cells - Science News - Playfuls.com - Science
By admin at 2006-12-01 03:04
 

 

    Canadian and Italian scientists have identified and characterized a specific type of colon cancer cell capable of initiating tumor growth in mice. Both papers lend support to the theory that, within a tumor, only a subset of cells -- cancer stem cells -- are responsible for tumor formation and maintenance.

 

John Dick and colleagues at the University Health Network in Toronto studied tumor growth by implanting human colon cancer cells under the kidney capsule of mice with a deficient immune system. They report only a small population of the cells was able to initiate tumor growth and those cells are found in the subset of colon cancer cells that express the cell surface protein CD133. That protein has previously been implicated as a marker for brain and prostate cancer stem cells. In the other paper, Ruggero De Maria and colleagues at the Higher Institute of Health in Rome show human colon cancer cells expressing CD133 also cause tumor growth when injected under the skin of immunodeficient mice. Both studies demonstrate a small population of colon cancer cells, distinct from those making up the bulk of a tumor, initiate tumor growth. The papers appear in the online edition of the journal Nature.

3 comments | 1124 reads

FDA Approves a New Drug for Colorectal Cancer, Vectibix
By admin at 2006-11-22 10:47
 

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved Vectibixterm (panitumumabtermterm) for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer that has metastasized (spread to other parts of the body) following standard chemotherapyterm. Vectibix, a monoclonal antibodyterm that binds to a protein called epidermal growth factor receptor or EGFRtermtermterm on some cancer cells, received an accelerated approval after showing effectiveness in slowing tumor growth and, in some cases, reducing the size of the tumor. In the United States, it is estimated that 150,000 new cases of colon cancer will be diagnosed and 55,000 deaths will occur from colon and rectal cancer in 2006. Approximately 70 percent of all colorectal carcinomas test positive for EGFR.

read more | 2226 reads

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