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Breast Cancer
Small RNAs can prevent spread of breast cancer
By Dross at 2008-01-10 02:05
 

Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers have identified small pieces of ribonucleic acid (RNA) that suppress the spread of breast cancer to the lungs and bone. The new research shows that the most invasive and aggressive human breast cancer tumors are missing three critical microRNA molecules. When the researchers put those molecules back into human breast cancer tumors in mice, the tumors lost their ability to spread.

“The tiny RNAs prevent the spread of cancer by interfering with the expression of genes that give cancer cells the ability to proliferate and migrate,” said senior author Joan Massagué, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute researcher at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.

read more | 607 reads

Bevacizumab found to improve survival for patients with advanced breast cancer
By Dross at 2007-12-27 23:46
 

Inhibiting the growth of blood vessels that supply tumors slows the progression of metastaticterm breast cancer according to results of a large clinical trial of Avastinterm, an anti-angiogenic therapy. The study, published in the December 27th issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, found that Avastin in combination with chemotherapyterm significantly prolongs progression-free survival for women with breast cancer compared to chemotherapy alone.

Rush University Medical Center participated in the clinical trial which was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute and conducted by a network of researchers led by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG).

read more | 4 comments | 2258 reads

Cone-Beam CT faster, potentially more accurate than conventional mammography
By Dross at 2007-12-27 23:45
 

Cone-beam breast CT provides exceptional tissue contrast and can potentially reduce examination time with comparable radiation dose to conventional 2D mammography, according to a new study by a team of researchers from the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston.

Cone-beam breast CT employs a large area x-ray beam in conjunction with a flat panel x-ray detector to scan and generate 3D images of the breast. The scanner is placed below a table on which the patient lies prone with the breast protruding through an opening. Only the breast is exposed to radiation resulting in improved image quality and sparing the rest of the patient’s body from unnecessary radiation exposure. The scan can be completed in less than one minute with a single complete rotation of the x-ray tube-detector gantry around the breast. Unlike conventional CT, the patient is not moved through the gantry during scanning.

read more | 1524 reads

Varying prevalence among ethnic groups of gene mutation that increases risk of breast cancer
By Dross at 2007-12-26 22:49
 

CHICAGO – Among several U.S. racial/ethnic groups examined, Hispanic women were found to have the highest prevalence of the cancer-associated gene mutation BRCA1 at 3.5 percent, with Asian Americans having the lowest prevalence (0.5 percent), according to a study in the December 26 issue of JAMA.

Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 confer high risks of breast and ovarian cancer. Average cumulative risk by age 70 years has been estimated at 65 percent for breast cancer and 39 percent for ovarian cancer, according to background information in the article. Although mutations in BRCA1 are rare, they are more frequently present in individuals with multiple relatives having breast or ovarian cancer, early-onset breast cancer, or of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. Information on the prevalence of BRCA1 mutation carriers in racial/ethnic minority populations is limited.

read more | 752 reads

Gene for Breast Density and Cancer Risk correlated
By Dross at 2007-12-18 22:17
 

Tampa, FL (Sept. 14, 2007)  − Studying the DNA of 889 people, gene hunters at the Mayo Clinic and Moffitt Cancer Center have identified a region on chromosome 5p that is significantly associated with dense breast tissue, a known risk factor for breast cancer. The findings, published in this month’s issue of Cancer Research, a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, suggest that genes that influence breast density could serve as a predictive marker for disease and provide a biological target for agents that may reduce breast cancer risk by reducing breast density.

read more | 1101 reads

Survey underscores importance of emotional/educational needs among women with advanced breast cancer
By Dross at 2007-12-17 22:08
 

SAN ANTONIO, Tex., December 16, 2007 – Psychosocial support in women with advanced or metastaticterm breast cancer (MBC) is as important as the need for disease- and treatment-related information, according to results of a survey presented here today at the 30th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

The survey of 367 women with advanced breast cancer, which was conducted by Y-ME National Breast Cancer Organization, also underscores the growing importance of the Internet as an information resource for patients. The survey uncovered that patients with MBC feel that the Internet can be utilized more effectively by healthcare professionals and patient advocates.

read more | 662 reads

Mayo Clinic - Even Tiny Breast Tumors Can Be Aggressive and May Require Maximum Therapy
By Dross at 2007-12-17 22:07
 

SAN ANTONIO — Breast tumors that are 1 centimeter in size or smaller — no more than 0.4 inch in length — can still be very aggressive and may require more intensive therapy than is routinely offered today, say researchers at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla.

The study, which is being presented at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, is one of the few that has looked at outcomes of women who have tiny tumors that have not spread to the lymph nodes. The findings suggest that outcome of two types of breast cancer — those classified as HER2 positive (HER2+) and triple negative — may not depend on size alone.

read more | 2956 reads

High-dose chemo and stem cell transplant shows little or no survival benefit for breast cancer
By Dross at 2007-12-14 00:24
 

High-dose chemotherapyterm and autologous stem cell transplantation, the controversial, arduous, yet once-popular combination treatment that fell out of favor as a therapy for breast cancer, has proven not to be beneficial as an adjuvant therapyterm for women with node-positive disease, according to an expansive analysis conducted by researchers at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

In a review of 15 randomized high-dose chemotherapy studies conducted around the world between 1988 and 2002, the investigators from M. D. Anderson, in collaboration with the European Blood and Marrow Transplant Group, report that while there was a slight benefit on relapse-free survival, there was no benefit to overall survival. Donald Berry, Ph.D., professor and head of the Division of Quantitative Sciences, presented the findings today at the 30th annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

read more | 2 comments | 1312 reads

MIT radar technology fights breast cancer
By Dross at 2007-11-28 20:50
 

CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--Treating breast cancer with a type of heat therapy derived from MIT radar research can significantly increase the effectiveness of chemotherapyterm, according to results from the fourth clinical trial of the technique reported online Nov. 25 in the journal Cancer Therapy.

In this study, large tumors treated with a combination of chemotherapy and a focused microwave heat treatment shrunk nearly 50 percent more than tumors treated with chemotherapy alone. The microwave treatment is based on technology originally developed at MIT in the late 1980s as a tool for missile detection.

read more | 1022 reads

Purdue research finds similarities in dog, human breast cancer pre-malignant lesions
By Dross at 2007-11-17 00:47
 

Pre-malignant mammary lesions in dogs and humans display many of the same characteristics, a discovery that could lead to better understanding of breast cancer progression and prevention for people and pets, said a Purdue University scientist from the School of Veterinary Medicine.

A group of scientists including Sulma Mohammed have found similarities between benign lesions that are considered to carry risk for developing breast cancer in both canines and humans. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women.

read more | 724 reads

More Women Are Choosing Double Mastectomy Even When Breast Cancer Is Confined to a Single Breast - ASCO
By Dross at 2007-11-17 00:45
 

ALEXANDRIA, Va.—Researchers are reporting a 150 percent increase between 1998 and 2003 in American women opting to have both breasts removed when cancer has been found in only one breast—a procedure called contralateralterm prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). This is the first study to examine these trends on a national level. The authors caution that this aggressive strategy may be unnecessary since most patients will never develop cancer in the second breast, and since the risk of cancer spreading to other parts of the body is often higher than the risk that cancer will be found in the second breast. The study will be published online October 22 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology (JCO).

“Although breast cancer is now often diagnosed at earlier stages, we’re seeing more women having contralateral prophylactic mastectomy, even though there are very little data showing that this irreversible procedure improves overall survival,” explained lead author Todd M. Tuttle, MD, chief of surgical oncology and associate professor of surgery at the University of Minnesota. “We need to determine why this is occurring and use this information to help counsel women about the potential for less invasive options.”

The researchers used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (which provides detailed information about cancer diagnosis and treatment for 16 areas in the United States) to review the treatment of patients with unilateral (one-sided) breast cancer diagnosed between 1998 and 2003. Among 152,755 women diagnosed with stage I, II or III breast cancer during this period, 59,460 underwent a single mastectomy; 4,969 other women who were candidates for a single mastectomy chose to have CPM as well. The CPM rate among those who were candidates for a single mastectomy rose from 4.2 percent in 1998 to 11 percent in 2003. Younger women, non-Hispanic whites and women with lobular breast cancers were more likely to have CPM.

Dr. Tuttle proposed several potential reasons for the increase in the rate of CPM. There is more public awareness of the genetics of breast cancer and more frequent testing for mutations in BRCA genes, which increase contralateral breast cancer risk (although this study did not examine patients’ BRCA status). Moreover, less invasive mastectomy approaches and improved breast reconstruction techniques may persuade more women to have both breasts removed at the same time.  

read more | 2 comments | 757 reads

Real time 3d breast cancer analysis
By Dross at 2007-11-14 20:59
 

Washington, D.C. − A sophisticated microscope that offers a “real-time” 3-D analysis of tissue samples might, in the future, reduce the number of needle biopsies traditionally needed from women suspected of having breast cancer, according to recent research published at Georgetown University Medical Center’s Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center.

Such an instant test would mean that physicians could immediately tell if they have collected adequate samples of breast tissue and limit the number of repeat biopsies, said the investigators, whose study appeared in the September/October issue of the Journal of Biomedical Optics.

read more | 700 reads

Breast cancer is more aggressive in African-American women
By Dross at 2007-10-30 21:10
 

New Haven, Conn.—African American women are diagnosed with breast cancer at a younger age and have larger tumors and more lymph node involvement than Caucasian women, a Yale School of Medicine researcher reported today.

Speaking at the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology meeting in Los Angeles, Meena Moran, M.D., assistant professor of therapeutic radiology and Yale Cancer Center member, said her results were based on 2,164 Caucasian women and 207 African American women followed over a 30-year period—the largest most comprehensive study of its kind to date. All underwent lumpectomies in which the tumor, not the entire breast, was removed.

read more | 845 reads

Cancer Prevention Coalition: The Breast Cancer Awareness Month Misleads Women
By Dross at 2007-10-20 04:05
 

In 1984, the American Cancer Society (ACS) inaugurated the National Breast Cancer Awareness Month (NBCAM), with its October 17 flagship National Mammography Day. The NBCAM was conceived and funded by the Imperial Chemical Industries, a leading international manufacturer of petrochemicals, and its U.S. subsidiary Zeneca Pharmaceuticals. Zeneca is the sole manufacturer of Tamoxifen, claimed to reduce risks of breast cancer, even though it is toxic and carcinogenic.

The NBCAM assured women that "early (mammography) detection results in a cure nearly 100% of the time." More specifically, the NBCAM is primarily directed to claims for reducing the incidence and mortality of breast cancer through early detection by annual mammography starting at age 40.

read more | 807 reads

Au Naturale: sunbathing may decrease risk of advanced breast cancer by half
By Dross at 2007-10-20 02:17
 

WINSTON-SALEM, N.C. -- A research team from the Northern California Cancer Center, the University of Southern California, and Wake Forest University School of Medicine has found that increased exposure to sunlight – which increases levels of vitamin D in the body -- may decrease the risk of advanced breast cancer.

In a study reported online this week in the American Journal of Epidemiology, the researchers found that women with high sun exposure had half the risk of developing advanced breast cancer, which is cancer that has spread beyond the breast, compared to women with low sun exposure. These findings were observed only for women with naturally light skin color. The study defined high sun exposure as having dark skin on the forehead, an area that is usually exposed to sunlight.

read more | 1202 reads

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