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Breast Cancer
UC San Diego researchers improve accuracy of breast cancer prognoses
By Dross at 2007-10-16 22:20
 

One of the many unknowns facing women who are diagnosed with breast cancer is predicting the likelihood that the cancer will spread to other parts of the body – metastasize. Researchers from UC San Diego are looking to change that. UCSD bioengineering professor Trey Ideker is pioneering a more accurate approach for predicting the risk of breast cancer metastasistermterm in individual patients.

This work will be published online by the journal Molecular Systems Biology on Tuesday 16 October.

Distant metastases are the main cause of death among breast cancer patients, but physicians have a hard time predicting if a patient’s breast cancer is likely to spread.

read more | 1434 reads

U-M News: New gene linked to breast cancer
By Dross at 2007-10-09 03:43
 

ANN ARBOR, Mich. - Researchers in a multicenter international study

have identified a new gene that, if mutated, may increase a woman*s

risk of breast cancer by more than a third.

 

Further, the researchers found that the gene, HMMR, interacts with the

well-known breast cancer gene BRCA1. Alternations in either gene cause

genetic instability and interfere with cell division, which could be a

read more | 1061 reads

Dietary calcium could possibly prevent the spread of breast cancer to bone
By Dross at 2007-10-02 23:06
 

PHILADELPHIA – A strong skeleton is less likely to be penetrated by metastasizing cancer cells, so a fortified glass of milk might be the way to block cancer’s spread, according to researchers at the ANZAC Research Institute in Concord, Australia. Using a mouse model of breast cancer metastasistermterm, the researchers found that a calcium deficiency may increase the tendency of advanced breast cancer to target bone. Dietary calcium, they reason, might help prevent the spread of breast cancer to bone and serve as an adjuvant treatment during therapy.

Their findings are presented in the Oct. 1 issue of Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

read more | 902 reads

Fetal cell 'transplant' could be a hidden link between childbirth and reduced risk of breast cancer
By Dross at 2007-10-02 23:05
 

PHILADELPHIA – Some benefits of motherhood are intangible, but one has been validated through biostatistical research: women who bear children have a reduced risk of developing breast cancer. In Seattle, Washington, researchers at the University of Washington and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center believe they have identified a source of this protective effect: fetal cells “transplanted” to the mother before birth.

Their findings are presented in the October 1 issue of Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

The ability of cells from a growing fetus to take up long-term residence within its mother is a phenomenon called fetal microchimerism. According to the researchers, while fetal microchimerism has been implicated as a mechanism of autoimmune disease, it may also benefit mothers by putting the immune system on alert for malignant cells to destroy.

read more | 682 reads

Wine, women and... spirits, beer and breast cancer risk
By Dross at 2007-09-28 02:18
 

Barcelona, Spain: One of the largest individual studies of the effects of alcohol on the risk of breast cancer has concluded that it makes no difference whether a woman drinks wine, beer or spirits (liquor) – it is the alcohol itself (ethyl alcohol) and the quantity consumed that is likely to trigger the onset of cancer. The increased breast cancer risk from drinking three or more alcoholic drinks a day is similar to the increased breast cancer risk from smoking a packet of cigarettes or more a day

Speaking at a news briefing today (Thursday) at the European Cancer Conference (ECCO 14) in Barcelona, Dr Arthur Klatsky said: “Population studies have consistently linked drinking alcohol to an increased risk of female breast cancer, but there has been little data, most of it conflicting, about an independent role played by the choice of beverage type.”

read more | 647 reads

MR spectroscopy identifies breast cancer, reduces biopsies
By Dross at 2007-09-25 21:41
 

OAK BROOK, Ill.—Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H MRS) used in conjunction with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can aid radiologists in diagnosing breast cancer while reducing the number of false-positive results and invasive biopsies, according to a study focusing on non-mass enhancing breast lesions. The study, conducted at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City, appears in the October issue of the journal Radiology.

“All of the cancers present in this study were identified with MR spectroscopy,” said the study’s lead author, Lia Bartella, M.D., director of breast imaging at Eastside Diagnostic Imaging in New York City.

read more | 1054 reads

Molecular fingerprint of breast-cancer drug resistance can predict response to treatment
By Dross at 2007-09-25 00:09
 

Barcelona, Spain: A way of predicting which patients will respond well to treatment with a common chemotherapyterm drug used in breast cancer was unveiled at the European Cancer Conference (ECCO 14) today (Monday 24 September). Dr Iain Brown, from the University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, told the conference that he and his colleague, Dr Andrew Schofield, had identified two genes that could identify which cells would be resistant and which would respond to docetaxel.

Docetaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapy treatments in advanced breast cancer. It works by binding to cell components called microtubules, and stabilising them so that they do not disassemble. They then accumulate within the cell and bring about apoptosis, or cell death. “However, up to half of all patients treated with this drug will develop resistance, and hence the treatment will fail,” said Dr Brown.

read more | 2 comments | 1328 reads

European directive will halt use of MRI scans; cancer diagnosis and treatment will suffer
By Dross at 2007-09-25 00:07
 

Barcelona, Spain: Implementation of the Physical Agents (Electromagnetic Fields) Directive 2004/40/EC in all Member States could effectively halt the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an important tool in cancer diagnosis, treatment, and research, a scientist told a press conference at the European Cancer Conference (ECCO 14) today (Monday September 24). The Directive is due to be implemented across Europe by April 2008.

The Directive was drafted by DG Employment, with the aim of minimising workers’ exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Currently eight million MRI patient examinations per year are carried out in Europe, said Professor Dag Rune Olsen, who works in experimental radiation therapy at the Norwegian Radiation Hospital, Oslo, Norway, and is chairman of the physics committee of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO). “But these are likely to have to stop, since the Directive sets limits to occupational radiation exposure which will mean that anyone working or moving near MRI equipment will breach them, thus making it possible for them to sue their employers. Even those maintaining or servicing the equipment may be affected,” he said.

read more | 1302 reads

Why Does Ovary Removal Prevent Breast Cancer?
By Dross at 2007-09-11 03:38
 

Physicians who treat women with the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 often remove their patients’ ovaries to eliminate the source of estrogen they believe fuels cancer growth. Yet they also know that anti-estrogen therapies don't work to treat breast or ovarian cancer that might develop. That paradox has led scientists to question exactly how, or if, estrogen is involved in cancer development and whether removal of ovaries makes sense.

 

Now, a team of researchers from Georgetown University’s Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center have shed light on the mechanism that makes ovary removal protective against tumor development in this unique population.

read more | 1760 reads

Exercise and yoga improves quality of life in women with early-stage breast cancer
By Dross at 2007-09-05 05:59
 

Studies support use during and after treatment

Alexandria, VA—Two studies report that exercise and yoga can help maintain and in some cases improve quality of life in women with early-stage breast cancer. The first study found that resistance and aerobic exercise improved physical fitness, self-esteem and body composition, and that resistance exercise improved chemotherapyterm completion rates. The second study demonstrated that yoga was particularly beneficial for women who were not receiving chemotherapy during the study period. Both studies will be published online September 4 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology (JCO).

read more | 1177 reads

Tumors use enzyme to recruit regulatory T-cells and suppress immune response
By Dross at 2007-08-20 00:24
 

One way tumors fly under the radar of the immune system is by using IDO, an enzyme used by fetuses to help avoid rejection, to recruit powerful regulatory T cells that turn down the immune response, researchers say.

It was known tumors assemble a protective barrier of regulatory T cells, or Tregs, but how they are such able recruiters was an unknown, says Dr. David Munn, pediatric hematologist/oncologist at the Medical College of Georgia Cancer Center.

“People have been very interested in how the tumor gets so many of these cells and how they get activated so they tend to be very aggressive, more suppressive in the tumor than they appear to be elsewhere in the body,” Dr. Munn says of Tregs, major players in preventing autoimmune diseases such as arthritis and type 1 diabetes, where the immune system attacks body tissue.

read more | 585 reads

New Cause of Tamoxifen Resistance in Breast Cancer Cells
By Dross at 2007-08-13 00:57
 

When a woman receives a breast cancer diagnosis her entire life may change in the blink of an eye. But the nature of that change is governed by the smallest alterations that take place within the proteins of the tumor cells, determining what treatments she can pursue with a hope of cure and those to which her cancer is resistant.

 

Scientists from the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center announced today the discovery of a new mechanism of resistance to endocrine or anti-hormonal therapies, such as Tamoxifen and Faslodex. This research may allow oncologists to screen women for responsiveness to these treatments, and provides a much-needed clue to reversing resistance. The research, led by Robert Clarke, PhD, DSc, a professor of oncology and of physiology and biophysics at Georgetown University Medical Center, indicates that a gene previously thought to be unrelated to breast cancer may be responsible for some resistance to endocrine therapy.

read more | 1 comment | 1425 reads

MRI finds breast cancer before it becomes dangerous
By Dross at 2007-08-11 00:37
 

Method detects preinvasive stages of breast cancer twice as often as mammography

A study in the Lancet (vol. 370, 11 August 2007) could lead to a change of paradigm in the early diagnosis of breast cancer. It states that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is substantially more accurate than mammography in diagnosing very early stages of breast cancer . Up to now MRI was thought to be hardly suited for the detection of such 'ductal carcinomaterm in situ (DCIS) . Researchers at the University of Bonn have now come to a completely different conclusion. In the past five years they examined more than 7000 women with both methods. In a total of 167 women the doctors found early forms of breast cancer – 152 (92 %) of these were found using MRT, 93 (56 %) with mammography.

read more | 1 comment | 1064 reads

Pathway links inflammation, angiogenesis and breast cancer
By Dross at 2007-08-10 02:55
 

HOUSTON - A well-known inflammatory protein spawns an enzyme that inactivates two tumor-suppressing genes, ultimately triggering production of new blood vessels to nourish breast cancer cells, researchers at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center report in the August edition of the journal Cell.

"This is a completely new pathway for inflammation-induced cancer and may provide new targets for clinical intervention," senior author Mien-Chie Hung, Ph.D., professor and chair of M. D. Anderson's Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology says of the chain of events described in the journal.

read more | 885 reads

New study suggests Concord grape juice may provide protection against breast cancer
By Dross at 2007-08-10 02:25
 

CONCORD, MASS., August 9, 2007 – Every three minutes, a woman in the United States is diagnosed with breast cancer . While factors like age and heredity contribute significantly to a woman’s likelihood of contracting this disease, lifestyle and nutrition choices may also play a role. One dietary choice that may help provide protection against breast cancer is a glass of 100 percent grape juice made from deep purple Concord grapes.

According to a new study, published in the current issue of the Journal of Medicinal Foods, natural compounds in Concord grape juice protected healthy human breast cells from DNA damage. Healthy human breast cells were exposed in a test tube to an environmental carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene, that is able to initiate a chain of events leading to breast cancer. However, the introduction of Concord grape juice compounds blocked the connection of the carcinogen to the DNA of the healthy cells.

read more | 1073 reads

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