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PSA
Genetic mutations associated with increased PSA and prostate cancer
By Dross at 2010-12-04 01:49
 

 

Austrian researchers have uncovered mutations throughout the mitochondrial genome that are associated with prostate cancer. An exciting aspect of the study, published by Cell Press on December 2 in the American Journal of Human Genetics, is the association of tRNA mutations with elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in Austrian men diagnosed with various stages of prostate cancer.

read more | 1760 reads

Prostate cancer: Watchful wait or vaccinate?
By Dross at 2008-02-01 21:35
 

PHILADELPHIA – Researchers at the University of Southern California have developed a prostate cancer vaccine that prevented the development of cancer in 90 percent of young mice genetically predestined to develop the disease. In the February 1 issue of Cancer Research, they suggest the same strategy might work for men with rising levels of PSA (prostate specific antigen), a potential diagnostic indicator of prostate cancer.

“By early vaccination, we have basically given these mice life-long protection against a disease they were destined to have,” said the study’s lead investigator, W. Martin Kast, Ph.D., a professor of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology and Obstetrics & Gynecology at the Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center. “This has never been done before and, with further research, could represent a paradigm shift in the management of human prostate cancer.”

read more | 1218 reads

First biomarker discovered that predicts prostate cancer outcome
By Dross at 2007-08-16 05:32
 

ROCHESTER, Minn. -- Mayo Clinic researchers have identified the first immune molecule that appears to play a role in prostate cancer development and in predicting cancer recurrence and progression after surgery. The report on the B7-H3 molecule by Mayo Clinic Cancer Center appears today in Cancer Research.

“This discovery will allow physicians to individualize treatment and observation plans for prostate cancer patients,” says Timothy Roth, M.D., a Mayo Clinic urology resident and lead author of the study. “Being able to tell a patient his specific risk after surgery, and perhaps even prior to surgery, will be a huge step forward.”

read more | 1610 reads

Provenge Stirs Emotion and Support Over Access to Experimental Treatments
By HCat at 2007-07-06 11:27
 

    The Washington Post has recently commented on Howard I. Scher of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Maha Hussain of the University of Michigan being in fear for their safety after they raised opposition to Dendreon Corporation’s experimental vaccine Provenge and its approval by the FDA. An expert panel in March recommended the FDA approve Provenge but in May, Scher and Hussain, along with others, questioned the effectiveness of Provenge and asked for more evidence to support its effectiveness. This raised a debate among patients about the access to experimental treatments which the article covers. 

read more | 7 comments | 4682 reads

High pretreatment PSA velocity predicts worse outcome
By Dross at 2007-05-26 08:40
 

The most significant single predictor of aggressive prostate cancer is an elevated rate of increase in prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels, according to a new study. Published in the July 1, 2007 issue of CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the study found that a pre-treatment rate of PSA increase, called PSA velocity, of more than 2 ng/ml/year was strongly associated with a high risk of death from prostate cancer. Elevated PSA velocity was a stronger poor prognostic factor than any other single high-risk indicator, such as a biopsy Gleason score greater than 7, a PSA level of 10 ng/ml or an advanced disease category.

read more | 1 comment | 1305 reads

PSA doubling predicts prostate cancer recurrence
By Dross at 2007-04-11 01:57
 

A detectable level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the first indicator of recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. In a new Mayo Clinic study, the concept of PSA doubling time (DT) is found to be a reliable tool to distinguish which patients have prolonged innocuous PSA levels after therapy from those who are at great risk for disease recurrence and death from prostate cancer. Doubling time is defined as the duration for PSA levels in the blood to increase by 100 percent.

Mayo’s study, published in the April issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, concludes that patients with a PSA doubling time of less than three months after therapy are at imminent risk of death from prostate cancer. Patients with a doubling time of three to 12 months are at a significant risk for the development of systematic disease and cancer-specific death.

read more | 1338 reads

Phase II Clinical Trial of Cytogens QUADRAMET with PSA-TRICOM Initiated for Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer Patients
By HCat at 2007-03-06 10:40
 

    At the beginning of March with the sponsorship of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cytogen Corporation it has initiated a randomized Phase II study to evaluate QUADRAMET (samarium Sm-153 lexidronam injection) in combination with PSA-TRICOM from the National Institute of Health (NIH). The patient base is for those who have failed docetaxel-based regimens.

    The study will determine if QUADRAMET alone or in combination with PSA-TRICOM can improve 4-month progression-free survival (PFS). There is currently no protocol for treatment of hormone-refractory patients who have advanced on docetaxel regimens.

    In April 2006, NCI researchers presented results of a preclinical study at the 97th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research. The study, "Use of Samarium-153 (QUADRAMET) to modulate phenotype and enhance killing of tumor cells" demonstrated that exposure to QUADRAMET resulted in up-regulation of surface molecules on cancer cells, including Fas (CD95), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), mucin 1 (MUC-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 or CD54), and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-1). Each of the five molecules evaluated in the study has been implicated in enhancing anti-tumor T-cell responses through diverse mechanisms.

read more | 5180 reads

Cancer treatment targets tumor blood supply
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By Dross at 2007-03-04 10:39
 

A clinical trial has for the first time proven that an antibodyterm called J591 specifically targets an antigen found in high amounts on both prostate tumors and on blood vessels of all solid tumors, according to a study by medical researchers at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York City. Since the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) exists only on tumors and not other tissues, J591 armed with a drug or radiation offers a way to selectively target cancer while leaving healthy tissues unharmed, thereby resulting in very low levels of toxicity and fewer side effectsterm for patients. While the study, published in the Feb. 10 issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology, was designed to prove that J591 could exclusively target tumors (it did not try to reduce tumor size), researchers now have a vehicle for selectively transporting drugs or a radioactive isotope to destroy the blood vessels that feed tumors, thereby cutting off the cancer's blood supply. Dr. Neil Bander Bander "This was a proof-of-principle study designed purely to confirm that we could successfully target tumor vasculature without targeting normal tissue," said the study's senior author, Dr. Neil H. Bander, a urological cancer specialist at the medical center and the Bernard and Josephine Chaus Professor of Urological Oncology at Weill Cornell Medical College.

read more | 2116 reads

Antisoma Drug Found Effective in Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer Phase II Trial
By HCat at 2007-02-24 10:42
 

    Antisoma, a London based company, announced at the ASCO Prostate Cancer Symposium positive phase II trial interim results in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients in a combination treatment with AS1404. The results showed that PSA response rates were higher in the AS1404-docetaxel combination (57%) than with docetaxel alone (35%). Time to tumor progression and survival data will be reported later in the year, but current data shows that the frequency of PSA progression was halved in the AS1404-docetaxel combination versus docetaxel alone (17% versus 29%). Safety statistics indicate no significant increase in side-effects from AS1404.

read more | 2707 reads

VA researcher finds way to identify which men need a second biopsy
By Dross at 2007-02-23 01:35
 

PORTLAND, Ore. -- A researcher in the Oregon Health & Science University Cancer Institute and Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center has found a way to identify which men need a second prostate biopsy because they may be harboring life-threatening prostate cancer even though they were given a clean bill of health after their first biopsy.

 

Mark Garzotto, M.D., has been invited to present his findings on Thursday, Feb. 22, at the Multidisciplinary Prostate Cancer Symposium in Orlando, Fla. He is the director of urologic oncology at the Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, assistant professor of surgery (urology) in the OHSU School of Medicine, and member of the OHSU Cancer Institute. Also involved in the research is Shane Rogosin, M.D., resident, in general internal medicine, and geriatrics, OHSU School of Medicine. "Until now we've really had no clear and consistent method to recommend further follow up or diagnostic procedures for men who have a negative biopsy. We have derived a simple marker so urologists can identify who is at risk for high-grade prostate cancer," Garzotto said. Garzotto studied what is considered a large group, 511 men at the Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center from 1992 to 2006. All had been referred to urology clinics for suspicion of prostate cancer. All patients had one prior negative prostate biopsy. In all, the study included 1,319 biopsies. What Garzotto found to be the indicator for a repeat biopsy was a high prostate specific antigen (PSA) adjusted for prostate size. A Gleason score of 7 or above was indicative that life-threatening prostate cancer may be present and a repeat biopsy is advised. A Gleason score is a system of grading prostate cancer tissue based on how it looks under a microscope. Gleason scores range from 2 to 10 and indicate how likely it is that a tumor will spread. A low Gleason score means the cancer tissue is similar to normal prostate tissue and the cancer is less likely to spread; a high Gleason score means the cancer tissue is very different from normal tissue and the tumor is more likely to spread. A high grade of cancer results in a higher PSA.

read more | 1418 reads

High Risk Metastatic Prostate Cancer Treatments in clinical trials, a mini overview
By HCat at 2007-01-08 04:37
 

This article covers 5 clinical trials in various stages.

     The GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) Tumor Cell vaccine is part of the GVAX suite of vaccines from Cell GeneSys. The vaccine works through the injection of irradiated, non-growing prostate cancer cells that secrete GM-CSF. The GM-CSF acts to recruit the immune cells (specifically dendritic cells) to the site of the vaccine and produce an immune response. The immune response then acts to target any prostate cancer cell within the body. This vaccine is in clinical phase III trials and currently recruiting. The phase II trials, the time to disease progression in metastaticterm bone disease was almost doubled in treated patients.

read more | 2401 reads

Prostate Cancer Basics
By HCat at 2007-01-07 02:11

The Androgen Receptor

   The Androgen Receptor (AR) is a protein inside of certain cells that can bind or capture the androgen hormones testosterone and the more active metabolite 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Once the receptor binds one of the hormones, it causes the receptor to become active and stimulate production of certain proteins inside cells such as PSA.

It is known that AR is required for the normal development of the prostate. If a male animal has no AR, then the prostate will not be created of will be very small when he is born.

read more | 25684 reads

Probing the blood peptidome for cancer biomarkers
By HCat at 2006-12-31 01:12
 

    The blood peptidome is the low molecular weight range of the serum proteome and is generally less than 50kDa. That is within the blood there are small sized protein bits which contain signatures and fragments from larger proteins. These signatures are being studied to see if there are possibilities in using the identification of fragments as markers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The discovery of new biomarkers in the past years has rapidly declined so that the field of biomarkers has shifted from single protein reliance, such as PSA for prostate cancer status, to multiple proteins to give an enhanced detailed prognosis.

read more | 1729 reads

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