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Breast
'Bridge' protein spurs deadliest stages of breast cancer
By Dross at 2007-02-22 22:28
 

New role for protein yields promising lead for metastasistermterm prevention A protein known for its ability to "bridge" interactions between other cellular proteins may spur metastasis in breast cancer, the disease's deadliest stage, a study from Burnham Institute for Medical Research has found. Led by professor Gen-Sheng Feng, Ph.D., and colleagues at Burnham and Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Quebec, the study ranks among the first to more precisely define the cancer role for the protein known as Gab-2. These results, to be published in the journal Oncogene, have been made available to the worldwide medical research community by priority posting online at the journal's website. The protein has been of keen research interest for its role in breast cancer, but whether it controlled metastasis or initial tumor growth was unknown. Gab-2 is one of a group of proteins known as "scaffold" or "bridge" proteins, which provide a molecular intermediary to help cell signal proteins interact.

read more | 1913 reads

Protein identified that regulates effectiveness of Taxol chemotherapy in breast cancer
By Dross at 2007-02-22 11:32
 

Washington, DC -- Cancer researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center have taken a step towards understanding how and why a widely used chemotherapyterm drug works in patients with breast cancer. In laboratory studies, the researchers isolated a protein, caveolin-1, showing that in breast cancer cells this protein can enhance cell death in response to the use of Taxol, one of two taxane chemotherapy drugs used to treat advanced breast and ovarian cancer. But in order to work, they found the protein needs to be "switched on," or phosphorylated. The results were reported in the current (February 23) issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry. Their finding suggests it may eventually be possible to test individual breast cancer patients for the status of such molecular markers as caveolin-1 in their tumors to determine the efficacy-to-toxicity ratio for Taxol, said the study%u2019s first author, postdoctoral fellow Ayesha Shajahan, Ph.D., of Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center at Georgetown. "Because breast tumors are not all the same, it is important to know the cancer%u2019s molecular makeup in order to increase the efficiency, and lower the toxicity, of chemotherapy drugs, and this work takes us some steps forward in this goal," she said. "It also offers insights into why some breast cancer cells can become resistant to therapeutic drugs."

read more | 1611 reads

A black and white look at breast cancer mortality
By Dross at 2007-02-21 23:03
 

African and African American women are more likely to die of breast cancer than their white counterparts because they tend to get the disease before the menopause, suggests new research from the University of East Anglia and the Children's Hospital Boston in collaboration with researchers in the US and Italy. A racial disparity in mortality rates from breast cancer in the US first appeared in the 1970s coinciding with the introduction of mammography. The new research, published in The International Journal of Surgery, posits that the reason for this is not reduced access to medical care, but because surgery in pre-menopausal women could encourage growth of the cancer. The average age of breast cancer diagnosis in African American women is 46, compared with 57 for European Americans. A previous study by one of the article's authors, Dr Isaac Gukas, of the University of East Anglia's School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, identified a mean age of 43 for diagnosis of breast cancer in Nigerian women compared with a mean age of 64 in the United Kingdom. Over 70% of the Nigerian cases were aged below 50, compared to less than 20% of cases in the UK. Further research published in 2005 suggested that those who underwent surgery for the disease before the menopause were more likely to relapse. "Surgery to remove a primary tumour induces the formation of new blood vessels %u2013known as angiogenesis. In pre-menopausal women who have high levels of oestrogen and other hormones, this may encourage the growth of the tumour," said Dr Gukas. "Early detection, through mammography, is more effective in post-menopausal women, and more white women are diagnosed after the menopause. This could explain the disparity in mortality."

read more | 1046 reads

Gene profiling predicts resistance to breast cancer drug Herceptin
By Dross at 2007-02-20 23:36
 

PHILADELPHIA -- Using gene chips to profile tumors before treatment, researchers at Harvard and Yale Universities found markers that identified breast cancer subtypes resistant to Herceptin, the primary treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer. They say this advance could help further refine therapy for the 25 to 30 percent of breast cancer patients with this class of tumor. In the February 15 issue of Clinical Cancer Research, the researchers found that HER2-positive tumors that did not respond to Herceptin expressed certain basal markers, growth factors and growth factor receptors. One of these, insulin-growth factor receptor 1(IGF-1R), was associated with a Herceptin response rate that was half that of tumors that did not express IGF-1R. They also discovered that resistant tumors continue to over-express the HER2 growth factor protein -- an important finding given that many scientists had thought that loss of HER2 was likely responsible for Herceptin resistance. "Herceptin has revolutionized the care of HER2-positive breast cancer for many patients, but unfortunately, not for some.

read more | 1 comment | 1425 reads

Active lifestyle reduces risk of invasive breast cancer
By Dross at 2007-02-15 23:55
 

PHILADELPHIA -- Six or more hours per week of strenuous recreational activity may reduce the risks of invasive breast cancer by 23 percent, according to researchers from the University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center (UWCCC). Their report in the February issue of Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, based on a survey of over 15,000 women, shows that exercise has a protective effect against invasive breast cancer throughout a woman's lifetime.

 

The results provide further evidence that for most women physical activity may reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer, the researchers concluded. To gain further insights into the mechanisms of risk reduction for breast cancer, the researchers investigated the relationship between physical activity and breast cancer risk in a population-based case control study in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin. During structured telephone interviews, the researchers questioned 7,630 women without breast cancer, 1,689 survivors of in situ, or non-invasive, breast cancer and 6,391 survivors of invasive breast cancer, all between the ages of 20 and 69. They asked detailed questions about physical activity, occupation, family history of breast cancer, menopausal status, and body mass index. According to the researchers, women who exercised had a reduced risk of developing invasive breast cancer provided they didn't have a family history of breast cancer. This reduction in risk was apparent whether the physical activity took place early in life, in the postmenopausal years, or in the recent past. "A woman's hormone levels naturally fluctuate throughout her life, and we have found that exercise likely offers protection against breast cancer regardless of a woman's stage in life," said Brian Sprague, a UWCCC research assistant and lead author of the study.

read more | 1044 reads

Breast cancer survival rates improved by novel drug sequence, say researchers
By Dross at 2007-02-13 21:49
 

    Changing the way women are treated for breast cancer could improve their overall chance of survival, according to research published today in the Lancet. The new paper shows that switching to a drug called exemestane, two to three years after commencing standard therapy with the drug tamoxifen, can cut the risk of death for certain women by a further 17% compared with using tamoxifen alone. Postmenopausal women with early-stage hormone-sensitive primary breast cancer are usually treated with tamoxifen for five years, once they are free of disease, to reduce the risk of their cancer recurring. This therapy was once viewed as the 'gold-standard' treatment and it has been shown to cut the risk of death by 34%. Over recent years, increasing numbers of these women have been receiving treatment with tamoxifen followed by Aromatase Inhibitors such as exemestane. The Intergroup Exemestane Study (IES), which involved women from 37 different countries, has been examining the benefits of taking tamoxifen for two to three years and then switching to exemestane for the remainder of the five-year period. This new research is the first to show that early benefits of the tamoxifen and exemestane treatment sequence are maintained after treatment has stopped. The study, which was led by researchers from Imperial College London and The Institute of Cancer Research, was funded by Cancer Research UK and Pfizer. The majority of breast cancer cases are hormone-sensitive, meaning that the cancer cells respond to oestrogen and die when they are deprived of the hormone.

read more | 1228 reads

Early switch to an aromatase inhibitor increases survival
By Dross at 2007-02-12 21:49
 

For breast cancer patients taking tamoxifen, switching to an aromatase inhibitor within three years significantly improves survival rates, according to a new study. Published in the March 15, 2007 issue of CANCER (http://www.interscience.wiley.com/cancer-newsroom), a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the study reveals that the clear survival benefit was also achieved without an increased risk of death from other causes,  a significant risk associated with tamoxifen. Hormone modulating therapies have made a significant impact on the survival rates of women with estrogen-sensitive breast cancer over the last two decades. The drugs are used as adjuvant to primary surgical treatment for a period of five years. Tamoxifen was the first estrogen modulator shown to increase survival and reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence. However, tamoxifen is associated with increased risk of death from other causes, such as strokes and endometrial cancer.

read more | 6 comments | 2209 reads

Emerging research heralds new era of breast cancer management
By Dross at 2007-02-12 21:48
 

    Aggressive research currently underway brings hope of dramatic advances in breast cancer management, according to a new review. Published in the March 15, 2007 issue of CANCER (http://www.interscience.wiley.com/cancer-newsroom), a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the review reveals that new approaches in breast cancer imaging, investigations into the timing of chemotherapyterm, and research on breast cancer vaccines may lead to exciting new nonsurgical tools for the physician treating breast cancer patients. These new tools may significantly alter current screening and treatment paradigms used by surgical oncologists, as well improving the care of patients.

read more | 955 reads

International study points to new breast cancer-susceptibility gene
By Dross at 2007-02-09 02:52
 

    A gene whose existence was detected only a couple of years ago may increase women's risk of breast cancer when inherited in a mutated form, and may contribute to prostate cancer as well, researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and colleagues in Finland report in a new study. The gene, known as PALB2, may play a role in only about 1 percent of breast cancer cases in the select population that was studied (Finnish women), but its discovery sheds light on the complex web of gene interactions that underlies the disease, say the authors of the study, which is being published by the journal Nature on its Web site, www.nature.com/nature, and lter in a print edition.

read more | 1504 reads

Increase in Breast Cancer treatment related MDS when GCSF given with Chemo
By Dross at 2007-02-07 05:00
 

Please read the About Us section if you have been diagnosed with Treatment related MDS. Leave your questions in the forums and I will be happy to help you with the latest research.

 

    Women with breast cancer who receive compounds that stimulate white blood cell production to help their bodies better tolerate chemotherapyterm are at an increased risk of developing a type of leukemiaterm or a condition called myelodysplastic syndrome, according to a new study in the February 7 Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

 

read more | 4 comments | 8265 reads

Improved imaging for identifying breast cancer in overweight women
By Dross at 2007-02-07 01:17
 

Increasing the ability to identify sentinel nodes the very first lymph nodes that trap cancer cells draining away from a breast lesion site has a major impact in the treatment and outcome of breast cancer patients, possibly eliminating the need for unnecessary and painful surgery.

 

Researchers found that using SPECT/CT imaging aids in sentinel node identification especially for overweight or obese women, according to a report in the February issue of the Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

 

Lymphoscintigraphy (a commonly performed nuclear medicine procedure that makes the lymphatic system visible to specialized cameras) used with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) imaging boosted sentinel node identification not only for the general population but also for those who were overweight.

read more | 1367 reads

Why Her-2 has not been a magic bullet in Breast Cancer
By Dross at 2007-02-05 21:00
 

The success of the ABL-kinase inhibitor Gleevec in the treatment of BCR–ABL-driven leukaemiaterm (CML) raised hopes that drugs that target key kinases underlying other cancers, such as members of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family, might be similarly efficacious. However, several small-molecule inhibitors of HER family kinases have shown limited efficacy in HER2-driven breast cancers, despite effective inhibition of kinase activity. Writing in Nature, Sergina and colleagues now provide an explanation for this phenomenon: failure to completely inhibit the kinase activity of HER2 allows oncogenic signalling through the kinase-inactive family member HER3 to continue.

read more | 4 comments | 2097 reads

UM/Sylvester Researchers Identify Molecular Pathway That May Help Fight Breast Cancer
By Dross at 2007-02-02 23:23
 

Miami, FL (January 25, 2007) -- Researchers at the University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center have identified how an important growth control mechanism is disabled in cancers – and have successfully restored its function in the lab. The research promises to eventually help restore the effectiveness of some breast cancer drugs in cancers that have become drug-resistant.

Joyce M. Slingerland, M.D., Ph.D., F.R.C.P.(C), Director of the Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute at the University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, identified how a key growth inhibitor protein is switched off, allowing cancer to proliferate and spread. “Our work solves a big puzzle in this field that has been around for almost 10 years,” said Slingerland.

read more | 1991 reads

Peptide vaccine fights off breast tumors with aid of bacteria-mimicking agents
By Dross at 2007-02-01 22:29
 

The following discusses a mechanism to reawaken the patient's immune system towards cancerous cells, which is the normal case in our individuals. While this study is in mice, it is important to pay attention to the researcher Esteban Celis, M.D., Ph.D, at Moffit in Tampa, and to look out for future clinical trials of the idea. You will note that he is an MD/PhD so you can bet its at the top of his agenda.

 

With the help of immune system-stimulating molecules that mimic bacterial components, researchers have used a type of cancer vaccine to both delay and prevent breast tumors in mice.

read more | 2 comments | 1591 reads

Hormone drug type makes survival difference in advanced breast cancer
By Dross at 2007-01-31 05:03
 

 

Aromatase inhibitors, a type of hormone therapy used to treat advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women, result in a small but significant increase in overall survival when compared to other hormone treatments, according to a new systematic review of studies. In addition, aromatase inhibitors -- drugs known as Arimidex, Aromasin and Femara -- are less likely to cause blood clots and vaginal bleeding than other hormone treatments, said review co-author Judith Bliss of the Institute of Cancer Research in London. The review analyzed 30 studies involving the treatment of advanced breast cancer, encompassing more than 10,000 postmenopausal women. Bliss and colleagues were surprised at how few of the reviewed studies presented data on overall survival for women taking aromatase inhibitors.

read more | 2410 reads

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