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Head
Researchers ID behavioral risk factors for head and neck cancers
By Dross at 2008-03-12 19:27
 

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have teased out two distinct sets of risk factors for head and neck cancers, suggesting that there are two completely different kinds of the disease.

In the Johns Hopkins study, head and neck tumors caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), a common sexually transmitted virus, were most often linked to certain sexual behaviors and marijuana use, rather than tobacco and alcohol. The Johns Hopkins scientists also found that people with the viral-linked cancer were younger, more likely to be white, married, college-educated and have an annual income of $50,000 or higher. By contrast, those not caused by HPV, were associated with tobacco smoking, alcohol use and poor oral hygiene, which are the behaviors most often linked to head and neck cancer.

read more | 1567 reads

A new radiation therapy treatment developed for head and neck cancer patients
By Dross at 2007-08-20 00:23
 

Most head-and-neck cancers that recur locally after prior full-dose conventional radiation therapy respond to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). These results were obtained in a Phase I/II study at the Helsinki University Hospital, Finland. The scientific director of the research program, professor Heikki Joensuu, University of Helsinki, considers the results clinically significant and very interesting. They open a new field for BNCT, since thus far BNCT has been evaluated only in the treatment of some brain tumours.

The follow-up results of 12 patients diagnosed with cancer of the head-and-neck and treated in a prospective clinical trial were reported in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology & Physics (online version available: www.redjournal.org). All patients had cancer of the head-and-neck that had recurred locally after surgery and conventional radiation therapy. Ten out of the 12 patients had substantial tumour shrinkage following BNCT, and in 7 cases the tumour disappeared completely. Adverse effects of treatment were moderate and resembled those of conventional radiation therapy.

read more | 1102 reads

Calculated risk
By Dross at 2007-01-25 09:56
 

 

A simple blood test may be able to identify those most at risk for developing head and neck cancer as a result of smoking. This was the finding of a recent study by Prof. Zvi Livneh, Head of the Weizmann Institute's Biological Chemistry Department, Dr. Tamar Paz-Elizur of the same department, and their research team that worked in collaboration with Dr. Rami Ben-Yosef of Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Prof. Laurence Freedman of Sheba Medical Center and Prof. Edna Schechtman of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.

 

Livneh's research deals with repair mechanisms for DNA, the material of genes. Cells maintain sophisticated repair systems to prevent the accumulation of mutations that might lead to cancer. In these systems, molecular detectors scan the DNA for injury. A sort of local operation is then performed to cut out and dispose of the damaged segment and replace it with a new one. In their study, which appeared in Cancer Research, the scientists asked whether a reduced individual ability (non-inherited) to repair DNA damage increases chances of getting head and neck cancer. Smoking damages DNA and is known to be a major cause of this disease, which can affect the throat, mouth and larynx.

read more | 2093 reads

Michigan and Stanford: Stem cell marker identified in head and neck cancer
By Dross at 2007-01-17 20:23
 

The cancer "Stem cell" theory comes from studies with blood cancers such as leukemiaterm, which are known to grow out of a subset of corrupted hematopoetic stem cells. In some studies, antibodies to the CD44 marker have been able to attach to these cells and block them from attaching to the bone marrow in a new mouse. Here Stanford and Michigan researchers seperated cancer cells from a solid tumor according to the CD44 marker using a technique known as Fluorescense Activated Cell Sorting in which a Flow Cytometerterm physically separates the cells.

Researchers have found a marker on head and neck tumor cells that indicates which cells are capable of fueling the cancer's growth. The finding is the first evidence of cancer stem cells in head and neck tumors.

read more | 2325 reads

Multiple Cancer Types treated with Photodynamic Therapy for Tumor Ablation
By HCat at 2007-01-09 03:04
 

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is more than 25 years old, yet this cancer therapy is now becoming more widely used in multiple cancer treatment areas. PDT uses an injectable drug (usually photofrin) that is light sensitive to certain wavelengths. When this photosensitizer is hit with light at the particular wavelengths, a chemical-light reaction occurs in which numerous oxygen radicals are formed. These oxygen radicals cause damage and death to cells, inducing apoptosis and necrosis to the surrounding tissue while also initiating the immune and inflammation response within the body. To specify where the damage occurs, the light source is inserted into a fiber optic wire within a needle. The needle is then guided to the site of the cancer through various imaging techniques such as computed tomographic (CT) imaging or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

read more | 2439 reads

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